Lake Michigan connects to Lake Huron through the Straits of Mackinac, and in some occasions, the pair are considered one lake. As water levels rise and drop, businesses may be positively or negatively affected. The same process was used for the lake level viewer minus tidal influence factors. Extensive forests, which dominate the watershed, are held in federal, state, provincial, and private timberlands. In 1918 the last warships to sink in the Great Lakes, French minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles, vanished in a Lake Superior storm, perhaps upon striking the uncharted danger of the Superior Shoal in an otherwise deep part of the lake. The lake’s average depth is 483 feet while its deepest point is 1,333 ft. Lake Superior holds 2,900 cubic miles of water which is enough to cover South and North America to a depth of 12 inches. Over 300 streams and rivers empty into Lake Superior with the largest source being the Nipigon River in Ontario. Lake Superior's size reduces the severity of the seasons of its humid continental climate (more typically seen in locations like Nova Scotia).  Summer surface temperatures in the lake appeared to have increased by about 4.5 °F (2.5 °C) between 1979 and 2007, compared with an approximately 2.7 °F (1.5 °C) increase in the surrounding average air temperature. , The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron in the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur (the upper lake, i.e. Other minerals extracted include silver (near Thunder Bay, Ontario), nickel (north of the lake), and copper (south of the lake). The southern shore of Lake Superior between Grand Marais, Michigan, and Whitefish Point is known as the "Graveyard of the Great Lakes" and more ships have been lost around the Whitefish Point area than any other part of Lake Superior. LAKE SUPERIOR marine chart is available as part of iBoating : USA Marine & Fishing App(now supported on multiple platforms including Android, iPhone/iPad, MacBook, and Windows(tablet and phone)/PC based chartplotter.). Exact dates for the shipping season vary each year, depending on weather conditions that form and break the ice. Water level elevations values shown in the water level selector are specific to each Lake. The hills and mountains that border the lake hold moisture and fog, particularly in the fall. This is a result of the underdeveloped soils found in its relatively small watershed. Lake Superior has been an important link in the Great Lakes Waterway, providing a route for the transportation of iron ore as well as grain and other mined and manufactured materials. Valuable mineral deposits surround the lake. The lake is bounded by Ontario and Minnesota to the north and west, and Wisconsin and Michigan to the south. It has an Average Depth of 483 ft (147 m) deep. Office for Coastal Management. The regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Omissions? They are still much lower than levels considered dangerous to human health; but this steady, long-term rise is an unusual record of environmental nitrogen buildup. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in the poem The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald." To query the depth of the water at any location, turn on the Depth-Query tool and click anywhere elevation data are available. New York and Michigan are two of several nonparticipatory states. If trends continue, Lake Superior, which freezes over completely once every 20 years, could routinely be ice-free by 2040. Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, and the third largest freshwater lake by volume. Ask us. Lake Superior fishing maps also include lake info such as gamefish abundance, forage base, water clarity, weedline depth, bottom composition, complete latitude/longitude grid lines and dozens of GPS waypoints & coordinates. The low water was a continuation of the dropping lake levels from the previous year, 1925, which set low-water records for October through December. Built in Lorain, Ohio, Cyprus was launched August 17, 1907, and was lost on her second voyage hauling iron ore from Superior, Wisconsin, to Buffalo, New York, with the lone survivor among her 23 crew being Charles G. Daniel Greysolon, sieur (lord) DuLhut (or Du Luth), opened the lake to active trading in 1679. The next documented people are known as the Shield Archaic (c. 5000–500 BC). By Victor Kiprop on October 30 2019 in World Facts. They used snow shoes, birch bark canoes and conical or domed lodges. The Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface area and volume, is brackish; though presently isolated, prehistorically the Caspian has been repeatedly connected to and then isolated from the Mediterranean via the Black Sea.  The lake lies in this long-extinct Mesoproterozoic rift valley, the Midcontinent Rift. They are also the largest freshwater lake by area extending over 94,250 square miles. In addition, each service is WMS-enabled. , According to a study by professors at the University of Minnesota Duluth, Lake Superior may have warmed faster than its surrounding area. Jeffrey Val Klump was the first person to reach the deepest point of the lake on July 30, 1985. Marie in 1662. Whether you live on or near the Great lakes or you simply enjoy visiting, this wood topographic map of Lake Superior makes great home décor and a perfect gift for boat owners. Lake Superior is fed by more than 200 rivers, including the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. The continental crust was later riven, creating one of the deepest rifts in the world. Orange areas denote a high degree of uncertainty (21% to 79% likelihood of wet or dry conditions). Mapping future conditions involves many unknowns. Lake Superior Lake Michigan Lake Huron Lake St. Clair Lake Erie Lake Ontario. Glacial meltwaters gathered in the Superior basin creating Lake Minong, a precursor to Lake Superior. Other principal rivers entering the north shore are the Pigeon, Kaministikwia, Pic, White, and Michipicoten. The lake’s drainage basin is 49,300 square miles (127,700 square km), exclusive of its surface area of 31,700 square miles (82,100 square km). United States Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Ocean Service | Website owner: Lava erupted from the rift and formed the black basalt rock of Michipicoten Island, Black Bay Peninsula, and St. Ignace Island. Notable production includes gold from the Hemlo mine near Marathon, copper from the Keweenaw Peninsula and the Mamainse Point Formation, iron from the Gogebic Range, silver at Silver Islet, and uranium at Theano Point. Every data set comes with some level of error. Conversion equations for map-to-geographical and geographical-to-map coordinate transformations for all bathymetric grids, as well as the format of the above data is described in the following NOAA technical memo: Computerized Bathymetry and Shorelines of the Great Lakes NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-16. , Lake Superior has fewer dissolved nutrients relative to its water volume than the other Great Lakes and so is less productive in terms of fish populations and is an oligotrophic lake. After the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe made themselves middle-men between the French fur traders and other Native peoples. Marie, Michigan, and Sault Ste. The presentation of data confidence in these maps only represents the known error in the elevation data and not uncertainty associated with the natural evolution of the coastal landforms (e.g., erosion or bluff failure) or future climate change impacts on lake levels. Dark red indicates areas having a high vulnerability, and the lighter reds indicate decreasing vulnerability. The data, maps, and information provided should be used only as a screening-level tool for management decisions. The lake is bounded by Ontario and Minnesota to the north and west, and Wisconsin and Michigan to the south. Water levels are referenced to both the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD85) and the selected lake’s long-term average water level (since 1918), which is zero on the slider. Ice closes the Lake shipping from mid-January to late March. Subsequently, iron was extracted from many parts of the Lake Superior district, including the Marquette Range in Michigan and the Mesabi Range in Minnesota. Marie, becoming today's St. Mary's River. Because of its large size (relative to watershed area) and the porous "dam" at its outlet, long-term lake-level fluctuations are much lower than in any of the other Great Lakes—generally less than 1 yard (1 metre). The lake’s average depth is 483 feet while its deepest point is 1,333 ft. Lake Superior holds 2,900 cubic miles of water which is enough to cover South and North America to a depth of 12 inches. Activate your subscription online within 2 months of purchase. The first people came to the Lake Superior region 10,000 years ago after the retreat of the glaciers in the last Ice Age. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores.. Edmund Fitzgerald was battered so intensely by Lake Superior that the 729-foot (222 m) ship split in half; her two pieces are approximately 170 feet (52 m) apart in a depth of 91 fathoms 4 feet (550 ft or 170 m). above Lake Huron). Superior is the farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, and the highest in elevation, draining through the St. Mary's River into Lake Huron. As with all remotely sensed data, all features should be verified with a site visit. Other well-known islands include Madeline Island in the state of Wisconsin, Michipicoten Island in the province of Ontario, and Grand Island (the location of the Grand Island National Recreation Area) in the state of Michigan. It is 350 miles (563 km) long (east to west), and its greatest width is 160 miles (258 km) from north to south. Annual lake-level fluctuations are less than 12 inches (30 cm). Twice per year, however, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F (4 °C) from top to bottom, and the lake waters thoroughly mix. The harbour shared by Duluth (Minnesota) and Superior (Wisconsin) is a shipping point for iron ore, grain, and flour. For more information about long term water level, visit Climatic Change 2013 and Environmental Modelling and Software 2013. Lake Superior has many natural harbours, and improvements have created additional ports. All rights reserved. French fur trading then flourished at intervals, but the entire region came under British control between 1763 and 1783. Users can also jump to particular water levels by clicking on individual numbers.  Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 km³) of water. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes.
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